Prerequisite: HS101. From murder to mayhem, torture to transportation, and muggers to Mafiosi, historians have discovered that deviance and its prevention provide a unique perspective into the workings of past societies. Consequently, crime and punishment have become popular topics of historical investigation over the last few years. Explores the development of criminal justice in modern Europe in the context of changing social, political, and intellectual pressures. Examines evolving patterns of crimes, innovations in law enforcement, differing definitions of deviance, and the impact of ideology on forms of punishments. Concentrates on the growing role of the state with its emphasis on public justice over personal compensation, and analyzes the later shift from physical retribution, such as torture, to moral rehabilitation through incarceration.