2013 - 2014
Undergraduate Catalogue

Modern Languages and Literatures

Office: Maryland Hall, Room 442

Telephone: 410-617-2780

Website: www.loyola.edu/academic/modernlanguages


Interim Chair: Ramón E. Espejo-Saavedra, Associate Professor

Interim Associate Chair: Ana Gómez-Pérez, Associate Professor

Professors: Ursula E. Beitter; Diane Chaffee-Sorace; André P. Colombat; Leslie Zarker Morgan; Thomas Ward

Associate Professors: Randall P. Donaldson; Ramón E. Espejo-Saavedra; Ana Gómez-Pérez; Margaret Austin Haggstrom; P. Andrew McCormick (emeritus); Marie G. Murphy

Assistant Professors: Matthew Harper; Yolopattli Hernández-Torres; Margarita Jácome; Tasha Lewis; Andrea Thomas; Jinghua Wangling

Instructors: José Alfredo Contreras; Suzanne Crouse; Lloyd Frias; Maja Milicevic; Giuliana Risso Robberto; Maria Ruiz Rosique; Catherine Savell; Holly Schneider; Qinna Shen; Sarah Tyler; Sarah Vitale; Melva Zamora; Yu Zhang

Affiliate Faculty: Pingsheng Cai; Paul Oorts; Ursula C. Sayers-Ward; Eston J. Teter

Faculty in the Department of Modern Languages and Literatures teach courses in Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese and Spanish. Ancient Greek and Latin are taught in the Department of Classics.

Core Language Requirement: All Loyola students are required to fulfill the core language requirement, either in a modern or a classical language. The sole exception to the core language requirement applies to native speakers. Native speakers are students who have completed their high school education in a language other than English. Placement is at the 300-level for native speakers who want to continue taking courses in their native language. All other students must fulfill the language requirement. In modern languages (Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, and Spanish), the core language requirement may be fulfilled in the following ways: by completing the second semester at the intermediate level (AB104, CI104, FR104, FR162, GR104, IT104, IT162, JP104, or SN104); by completing a one-semester foreign literature course taught in the foreign language; or by placing into and completing a 200-level language course. Pre-core courses (101/102/103/161) taken by students with inadequate preparation in the language or wishing to begin an additional language will fulfill part of the electives requirement.

Placement Tests in Modern Languages: The Department of Modern Languages and Literatures does not allow "self-placement," and students must take their language core course at the level into which they place. Placement tests are available online in Chinese, French, German, Italian, and Spanish. No credit is awarded through these tests. The department encourages entering students to consider taking the advanced placement exam, if available, because a high score on that exam offers the possibility of both advanced placement and credit. Please note that these guidelines pertain exclusively to initial placement into language courses. Students considering a Major or Minor in French, German, Spanish, or Comparative Cultures and Literary Studies (CCLS) should read further for the courses required for a specific major or minor.

Normally, students will complete the core language requirement by the end of the sophomore year at Loyola. As is the case for all transfer courses, students seeking to fulfill the core language requirement at other accredited institutions must obtain prior permission through the Academic Advising and Support Center. Only courses at accredited institutions will be accepted.

Some upper-division literature courses (those with the ML prefix) are conducted in English and offered to students of all disciplines. In these courses, readings can be done in English or in the language. Non-majors sufficiently proficient to follow lectures in the language are welcome in all courses. These students may do readings and papers in English.

A certificate of oral proficiency is available to all qualified students through the American Council for the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). A fee is charged. Language majors interested in a career in business can prepare themselves within the regular Bachelor of Arts program by taking a minor in the Sellinger School of Business and Management. Loyola University Maryland is a testing center for the "Certificat de français professionnel" given by the Paris Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The Spanish section tests for the "Certificado del Espanol de los Negocios," offered by the Madrid Chamber of Commerce and the University of Alcalá.

A service-learning experience is available to students enrolled in some courses numbered 104 and above. The experience affords students the opportunity to increase their oral proficiency while assisting members of the Baltimore community.


The department's learning aims are based on "The Five Cs of Foreign Language Education": Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons and Communities created by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). These goal areas, which were developed to reflect the wide variety of purposes for and uses in modern languages, are interconnected in many respects; however, for purposes of clarity, the department interprets these standards below from the perspective of Loyola's undergraduate educational aims.

Communication: Courses are conducted in the target language. Students engage in conversations, as well as discuss content. Students learn to listen, speak, and produce written work on a variety of topics and readings in the language studied.

Cultures: Culture is a spectrum of textual production and discursive practices. It includes nonliterary contexts such as political, social, and cultural institutions. One of the most important ways students learn about culture, however, is through the study of texts: literature, film, and other cultural documents. Students become sensitized to cross-cultural differences.

Connections: Students acquire the ability to make connections between their use of the modern language and the implications that this knowledge has in relation to other disciplines. This includes linguistic intricacies and the cultural practices associated with the modern language studied, as well as an understanding of its role in faith and social justice issues, with a global perspective to connect intellectually to the sociohistorical context of the countries in which the language or languages they study are spoken and to analyze multiple perspectives in a meaningful way. They use these perspectives to recognize distinctive viewpoints that are only available through the study of modern languages and cultures.

Comparisons: Through second language acquisition, students gain a broader linguistic perspective and develop a more profound understanding of the nature of language through actively identifying and seeking comparisons of the language studied and its variants and their own native language, including the ability to analyze and appreciate not only the contributions and practices of their own culture, but also that of other societies and populations, and to compare and contrast aspects of various cultural manifestations, institutions, and ideals.

Communities: Because languages are living manifestations of the human experience, students use these languages beyond the school setting, participating in community service in language-specific populations, they also travel to and study in countries where the language they have learned is spoken and live with families in those countries. They begin with university- and department-sponsored events, such as lectures, films, excursions, and other community-building events. Students show evidence of becoming lifelong learners by pursuing and promoting an appreciation of the language and cultures they have studied, acting as ambassadors of intercultural awareness and appreciation to their campus and to the greater community, recognizing the dynamic interdependence between self and others through their study of transglobal realities.


Bachelor of Arts

Requirements for a major and an example of a typical program of courses are as follows:

Freshman Year

Fall Term

    FR103 Intermediate French I or
    GR103 Intermediate German I or
    SN103 Intermediate Spanish I*
    WR100 Effective Writing
    Math/Science Core
    Social Science Core

Spring Term

    EN101 Understanding Literature
    FR104 Intermediate French II or
    GR104 Intermediate German II or
    SN104 Intermediate Spanish II*
    HS101 Europe and the World Since 1500
    Math/Science Core
    Social Science Core

Sophomore Year

Fall Term

    FR201 French Composition and Conversation or
    GR201 German Composition and Conversation or
    SN201 Spanish Composition and Conversation*
    PL201 Foundations of Philosophy
    TH201 Introduction to Theology* or
    English Core (200-level)
    History Core (300-Level)

Spring Term

    FR316 Exploring the Text or
    GR301 German Culture and Civilization I or
    SN300-310 Hispanic Civilization Course*
    FR/GR/SN200-Level Course*
    PL200-Level Philosophical Perspectives Course
    Fine Arts Core
    Math/Science Core

Junior Year

Fall Term

    FR/GR/SN200-Level Course*
    FR/GR/SN300-Level Course*
    TH201 Introduction to Theology or
    Ethics Core
    Nondepartmental Elective

Spring Term

    FR300-Level Course or
    GR302 German Culture and Civilization II or
    SN300-310 Hispanic Civilization Course*
    FR/GR/SN300-Level Course*
    Theology Core
    Nondepartmental Elective

Senior Year

Fall Term

    FR/GR/SN300-Level Course*
    Departmental Elective*
    Departmental Elective*

Spring Term

    FR/GR/SN200-Level Course or
    FR/GR/SN300-Level Course**
    Departmental Elective*
    Nondepartmental Elective

* Required for major.

** Majors need a minimum of three 200-level courses and six 300-level courses.

  1. Intermediate Language II (104 or 162) or an appropriate score on the University's placement test is a prerequisite for all courses numbered 200 or higher (except ML courses, which are taught in English). Unless otherwise noted in the course description or waived by the chair in consultation with the instructor, FR201/GR201/SN201 is the prerequisite for all courses numbered 202 or higher.
  2. General Requirements for Majors: Twelve courses above the intermediate level (104or 162) are required for majors in French, German, and Spanish. Two courses with an ML prefix can count toward the major. Except for ML courses, students should take 200-level courses before 300-level courses. Students are advised to take their 200-level courses before going abroad. Some programs in Spanish require students to have completed SN201 and SN203 or SN217 prior to studying abroad. Although majors are offered only in French, German, and Spanish, some courses offered in Chinese, Italian, and Japanese can count toward the Major in Comparative Cultures and Literary Studies.
  3. Majors and minors should take Composition and Conversation (FR201/GR201/SN201) in the freshman or sophomore year. First-year students can take the 201 course (or above) in the appropriate language if they have achieved a satisfactory score on the Language Placement Test. Majors should consult the department chair about the effect of the placement test score on an individual's academic program.

    For interdisciplinary majors (split majors) involving a modern language, a minor in the modern language is required.

    Interdisciplinary (ML) courses are taught in English. They are open to nonmajors but do fulfill departmental major and minor elective requirements.

  4. Specific Requirements for Majors:
  5. French majors should take FR201 and FR316. Students may take up to three 200-level courses. French majors should take a minimum of six courses at the 300-level, at least two of which are literature courses.

    German majors should take GR201 and two additional 200-level courses. German majors should take a minimum of six courses at the 300-level, at least two of which are culture courses (GR301-309). Within the classic German major, students can select an area studies concentration. Requirements are five 200-level courses; any three courses from GR301-309; one ML course (any level); and three 300-level courses, of which no more than two can be chosen from among relevant courses in other departments (written approval of a German Area Studies Steering Committee member required).

    Spanish majors must take SN201 and either SN203 or SN217. Spanish majors should take a minimum of six courses at the 300-level, at least two of which are culture courses (SN301-310) and four of which are literature and linguistics courses (SN320 or above).

  6. Sophomores should take two departmental courses in both the fall and spring terms.
  7. All language majors are encouraged to spend a semester, junior year, or a summer abroad. Students who major in the Department of Modern Languages and Literatures and study abroad must take half of their course requirements for the major at Loyola. Upon their return from study abroad, all students with a Major in French, German, or Spanish must take one 300-level course in the language of their major at Loyola.
  8. All language majors are encouraged to explore another period or area such as business, economics, Gender Studies, history, or political science. They should take as many free electives as possible in that area to broaden their knowledge in the culture and society of their target area and to enhance their employment possibilities.
  9. Students must complete the diversity core requirement through a designated diversity core, major, or elective course (see Diversity Core Requirement under Curriculum and Policies).


General Requirements for Minors

Minors are available in French, German, and Spanish. Students can achieve the equivalent of a Minor in Chinese by combining departmental offerings with courses taken in a cooperative program at area colleges (completion of a minor equivalency is not recorded on the Loyola transcript). Minors are required to take six upper-division courses in the appropriate language area beyond the intermediate level, preferably two 200-level courses and four 300-level courses. One departmental elective given in English (an ML course) may be included among the six courses.

Students who minor in the Department of Modern Languages and Literatures and study abroad must take half of their course requirements for the minor at Loyola. Upon their return from study abroad, all students with a Minor in French, German, or Spanish must take one 300-level course in the language of their major at Loyola.

Specific Requirements for Minors:

In Spanish, two or three 200-level courses and three or four 300-level courses are required. Minors studying abroad must take at least one SN300-level course after they return to Loyola. Minors must take SN201, SN203 or SN217, one culture course (SN301-310), and three literature or linguistics courses (SN320 or above). An ML course (any level) may be substituted for one of the SN300-level courses.

In French, minors studying abroad during the academic year must take at least one FR300-level course after they return to Loyola. All minors are required to take one or more 300-level literature courses.

Within the German minor, students can select an area studies concentration. Requirements are three 200-level courses; one ML course (any level); and two 300-level courses, one of which can be chosen from among relevant courses in other departments (written approval of a German Area Studies Steering Committee member required).

Besides the traditional Minor in French, German or Spanish, students may elect to apply some approved departmental courses to an interdisciplinary Minor in Asian Studies, Gender Studies, Italian Studies, Latin American and Latino Studies, or Medieval Studies.


The CCLS major is an interdisciplinary program which includes a strong foreign language emphasis. The major adopts a global perspective and establishes broader connections and contrasts across nations, cultures, languages, and ethnic groups. The comparative focus of the major benefits not only CCLS majors and minors, but all students interested in the world heritage of which we are part. The CCLS major also encourages acquisition of a second or third foreign language, chosen from course offerings in Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, or Spanish. Because of its broad humanistic base and strong interdisciplinary focus, this major is in conformity with the objectives of the University to prepare students "to learn, lead, and serve in a diverse and changing world."

CCLS majors specialize in the comparative study of diverse cultures and literatures and acquire advanced-level reading and communication skills in at least one foreign language. The expected learning outcomes for CCLS majors are a high degree of multicultural awareness; acquisition of strong communication and reading skills in at least one foreign language; and the development and acquisition of strong critical and analytical skills through the process of comparison. To ensure achievement of these goals, student assessment is conducted through examinations, reports, papers, and special projects. As a capstone experience, seniors take one of the CCLS core courses and write a senior project paper in that course. The course instructor and the CCLS Steering Committee critiques and grades the paper to ensure proper coherence with the individual studentís program.

All CCLS students must plan their program in consultation with the CCLS director. Students are encouraged to participate in a study abroad program. Usually, four courses for the major and two for the minor may be taken abroad. Students also are encouraged to minor in another modern or classical language or in another discipline to complement the CCLS major. CCLS students may double count only two courses from another major or minor as part of their CCLS major.

The 12 courses required for the major are as follows:

  • Two 200-level language courses in a language taught at Loyola (Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, or Spanish).
  • Six 300-level CI, FR, GR, IT, ML, or SN courses, one of which must be Topics in Comparative Cultures and Literary Studies (ML307).
  • Four courses from participating departments or other course approved by the director of CCLS; these courses have a comparative aspect. The following departments participate in the CCLS major: Modern Languages and Literatures, Classics, Communication, English, Fine Arts, History, Philosophy, Political Science, Theology, and Writing. Students interested in the program should contact the CCLS director for the current list of approved CCLS courses.

The capstone paper is written in the senior year in a Modern Languages CCLS course. Seniors research and write a paper integrating the course topic into the specific orientation chosen for their comparative studies. The course instructor, CCLS director, and CCLS Steering Committee monitor, advise, critique, and grade the paper. Completion of the paper is necessary for graduation with a CCLS major.


The six courses required for the minor are as follows:

  • Topics in Comparative Culture and Literary Studies (ML307)
  • Two 200-level courses in a language taught at Loyola (Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, or Spanish)
  • Two 300-level CCLS core courses
  • One FR/GR/IT/SN300-level course or one 300-level course from another department

Students with a CCLS minor may count only one course from their major or another minor for the CCLS minor. All courses must be approved by the CCLS advisor in consultation with the CCLS Steering Committee.

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